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Original research

A School-based survey among Adolescents on Dietary pattern, Exercise, and Knowledge of Cardiovascular risk factors (ADEK) Study

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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is a global emerging problem and its risk starts in children and adolescents. Adolescents have modifiable cardiovascular risk factors that have been found globally, and nationally, and early intervention programs may be able to lower these risks for both individuals and populations. Accurate risk factor evaluation at the individual level is crucial in this situation for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Objectives

The study aimed to investigate cardiovascular disease knowledge and to determine physical activity, and dietary patterns among school-going adolescents in Arakkonam, Tamil Nadu, India.

Methods

A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess cardiovascular disease knowledge among 500 adolescents aged 10-18 from public schools. The study period was from September 2021 to February 2022. The measurement taken on anthropometrics such as height, weight, body mass index, and bio-physiological measurement as blood pressure, structured questionnaire assessed for knowledge, dietary questionnaire assessed previous week food consumption which the investigator developed, and physical activity standard questionnaire assessed the past week’s exercise level. Data were analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.

Results

The mean study population age was 13.7±1.7, 53% were boys, and 47% were girls. Factors like age 16-18 years (p=0.01), site of residence from urban (p=0.001), education of teenagers (p=0.01), and family history of cardiovascular disease (p=0.001) are significantly correlated with the level of knowledge score, with better-educated adolescents having fair knowledge score than others. Level of knowledge score and demographic traits are associated with physical activity, such as 16 to 18 years (p=0.03), living in an urban region (p=0.03), being in a joint household (p=0.001), adolescents who are at higher secondary (p=0.02), and having a family history contribute more to cardiovascular disease (p=0.001) than other variables. Mean days eating diets were egg (4.18±2.27), vegetables (3.92±0.93), milk products (3.85±1.87), fried foods (3.75±1.25), toffees, and chocolates (3.35±1.81) all had higher percentages of consumed foods than others.

Conclusion

There is a risk of cardiovascular disease higher among adolescents. Still a need for school-based primordial preventive educational approaches needed to improve to curb this burden.

Imprint

Gomathi Munusamy, Ramesh Shanmugam. A School-based survey among Adolescents on Dietary pattern, Exercise, and Knowledge of Cardiovascular risk factors (ADEK) Study. Cardiometry; Issue 23; August 2022; p.123-132; DOI: 10.18137/cardiometry.2022.23.123132; Available from: https://www.cardiometry.net/issues/no23-august-2022/school-based-survey-among-adolescents

Keywords

Adolescent,  Cardiovascular risk factors,  Dietary habits,  Physical activity,  Schools
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