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Effect of Diabetes type-II on Eye disease and its risk factors; A Logit Model Analysis

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To know the effect of Diabetes type-II on Eye disease and its risk factors in a tertiary eye care hospital in Karachi. This was a cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection. The data was retrieved from January to June 2019 from the Hospital Information Management System (HIMS) software of the Institute. Non-probability purposive sampling method was used to collect data. Inclusion criteria were all the diabetics type-II patients came for routine check-ups at Diabetes Eye Department irrespective of age, gender and duration of diabetes. Statistical analysis was done using STATA version 13.0 software for windows. A total of 6090 cases were analyzed. Mean age of the participants was 51.01±10.8 years. There were 2954 (48.5%) male and 3136 (51.5%) female observed in this study. Table 1 shows the results of the binary logistic regression analysis with coefficients and their standard errors (S.E.), Wald test values, p values, odd ratios, and 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios. When all explanatory variables treat as continuous variables, we found that all variables which include age, height, random blood sugar (RBS) and duration of diabetes was statistically significant at the significance level 0.05 except weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS) for individual regression slope coefficients. This study reveals findings through binary logistics regression analysis. It indicates that there is an association found in the patients of eye disease with age, height, weight, RBS, FBS. This stated that there were some risk factors observed in these variables related to eye disease. Those who have the disease have risk factor to developed the others associated disease.


Muhammad Faisal Fahim, Tayyab Raza Fraz, Sana Malik, Usama Yaseen. Effect of Diabetes type-II on Eye disease and its risk factors; A Logit Model Analysis. Cardiometry; Issue 29; November 2023; p.90-94; DOI: 10.18137/cardiometry.2023.29.9094; Available from:


Diabetes type-II,  Eye disease,  Fasting blood sugar,  Random blood sugar,  Diabetic Retinopathy
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