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Pineal gland and the third eye anatomy history revisited-a systematic review of literature


The structure and functions of neuroendocrine pineal gland remains an enigma to both philosophers and scientists since time immemorial. Some of the structural and functional mysteries of pineal gland are unfolded to some extent in this article by reviewing the work of various researchers. Recently a neuronal circuit consisting of seven neurons between retina and pineal gland have been established to relate the effect of light and other rays on its secretion. The various physical properties such as piezoelectricity, piezoluminescence, electromagnetic field, solar flare, infrared energy are also explained and correlated with the structural and secretional components of the gland. The neurosecretion of pineal gland such as melatonin play an important role in sleep-wake patterns, timings and release of reproductive hormones along with temperature control. The presence of all enzymes needed for the synthesis of di-methyl-tryptamine (DMT) in pineal gland explains the near death experience (NDE) phenomenon. The various audiovisual hallucinations in NDE phenomenon occur due to massive increase of DMT in pineal gland before death. A very high concentration of di-methyl-tryptamine (DMT), presence of retinal proteins in 10% of pinealocytes, its role in thermoregulation and a possible role as magnetoreceptor in blind men and highest deposits of fluoride in the body are not only interesting but significant for the future research. Hence a lot of further research on pineal gland is still required to correlate its unique properties with its structural components


Shweta Chaudhary, Rishi K Bharti, Swati Yadav, Parul Upadhayay. PINEAL GLAND AND THE THIRD EYE ANATOMY HISTORY REVISITED-A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF LITERATURE. Cardiometry; Issue 25; December 2022; p.1363-1368; DOI: 10.18137/cardiometry.2022.25.13631368; Available from:

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