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Menstrual irregularities: understanding the role of influential factors

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Menstrual irregularities are very common in young females nowadays. Menstrual irregularities can include an array of conditions like amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, menorrhagia and metrorrhagia. They have a prevalence rate of as high as 85% and hence should be considered a growing public health concern in India. These irregularities have been linked to increased chances of developing chronic diseases like type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, migraines, breast cancer etc. leading to a compromised quality of life in the future. Factors like exercise, anthropometry, diet quality, mental health, sleep, circadian rhythm, PCOS or any underlying conditions and gut microbiome have been suspected to play substantial roles in maintaining and regulating the menstrual regularity of a female. Female athletes commonly face amenorrhea because of high energy restriction and long training exercise sessions. Body fat percentage and diet directly affect the circulating sex hormones in the body which causes alterations in the menstrual pattern. A poor mental health hampers the hormone homeostasis affecting the menstrual health with it. PCOS is a known disorder that causes irregularities and the relationship of gut health and irregularities has also been explored. Hence, adhering to a routine and following a healthy lifestyle including consumption of balanced food, routinely exercise, adequate and good quality sleep, a stable mental health and a diverse gut microbiome can be one of the ways to treat or cure these irregularities. This review paper highlights most of the plausible factors that can affect or hamper menstrual irregularities in a female and how changing them can help and improve the condition.


Rhea Monga, Devaki Gokhale. MENSTRUAL IRREGULARITIES: UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OFINFLUENTIAL FACTORS . Cardiometry; Issue 25; December 2022; p.378-386; DOI: 10.18137/cardiometry.2022.25.378386; Available from:


Menstrual irregularities,  Menstrual disorders,  Factors,  Hormones homeostasis
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