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Original research

ECG periodic table: a new ECG classification based on heart cycle phase analysis

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The article considers the development of the periodic table of ECG phase changes which should reflect the variety of the ECG curves and can be used as reference system for diagnostics purposes.

Materials and methods

More than 5,000 ECG records were studied. They were recorded as original single-lead ECG of the ascending aorta. This fundamentally new ECG lead system reflects all processes in cardiovascular system. It was named by its developers the “ECG – HDA”. Basing on the theory of cardiac cycle phase analysis, the authors defined deviations from the normal ECG curve. Clinical tests were conducted and descriptions based on the laws of cardiometry were provided.


A fundamentally new system of the ECG curve evaluation has been developed.


It is stated that all the variety of the actual ECG curves can be divided into 10 groups. Each group contains 4 levels of characteristic changes, starting from the norm up to and including critical deviations from the norm. The results are presented in the “ECG phase changes periodic table”. The table can be used for very precise diagnostics. The periodic table enables assessing the capabilities of the practical application of electrocardiography from a new point of view.


Mikhail Y. Rudenko, Olga K. Voronova, Vladimir A. Zernov. ECG periodic table: a new ECG classification based on heart cycle phase analysis; Cardiometry; No.2; May 2013; p.19-28; DOI: 10.12710/cardiometry.2013.2.1928 Available from:


Cardiometry,  ECG,  Phase analysis,  Cardiovascular system
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